Know traditional Chinese medicine


First, the history of Chinese medicine development

In the process of fighting the disease for thousands of years, the working people of our country have gradually realized a wealth of medical knowledge through practice and constant understanding. Due to the unsatisfactory writings in the ancient times, this knowledge can only be dictated by the teacher. Later, with the words, it is gradually recorded.

traditional Chinese medicine

Medical books appeared. These books serve to summarize the experience of previous people and facilitate their dissemination and promotion. China's medical science has a history of thousands of years. It is a very rich experience summarizing the long-term struggle of the Chinese people with diseases, and it has made tremendous contributions to the prosperity of the Chinese nation. Because grasses account for the majority of drugs, books that record drugs are called "Materia Medica." According to research, when the Qin and Han Dynasties, the prevalence of herbal medicine has been more, but unfortunately these herbs have been dead, no test. The earliest known herbal work is called "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic". The author is unknown. According to the place names recorded therein, it may be that the Eastern Han doctors revised the predecessors' works.

Shennong Materia Medica has a total of three volumes in the book "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic". There are 365 kinds of drugs, including movement, plant and mineral. There are sexual tastes, functions and indications for each drug download, and the prefaces briefly describe the medication. The basic theory, such as toxic and non-toxic, four gas and five flavors, compatibility, medication and pills, powder, cream, wine and other dosage forms, can be said to be a summary of Chinese drug knowledge before Han, and laid the foundation for future pharmaceutical development. In the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Liang Daitao Hongjing (AD 452-536) compiled and supplemented the "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" and wrote a book entitled "The Herbal Classics", which added 365 kinds of drugs used by famous doctors under the Han and Wei Dynasties. 》.

Under each medicine, it not only supplements the original taste, function and indications, but also increases the origin, collection time and processing methods, which greatly enriches the content of Shennong Materia Medica. In the Tang Dynasty, due to the development of productivity and the increasing frequency of external traffic, the government assigned Li Ji and others to preside over the addition of Dow’s note on the scriptures, which was called “Tang Bencao” and then ordered Su Jing and other revisions. 114 kinds of drugs were added, which was enacted in the four years of Xianqing (AD 659). It was called "new revision of the original grass" or foreign drugs were imported, and the variety of drugs increased. In order to adapt to "Tang Xin Materia Medica", this book was revised and enacted by the then government, so it is considered to be China's first Pharmacopoeia in the world. This herb has 844 kinds of drugs, and is accompanied by a drug map, which has created a precedent for the comparison of Chinese herbal works and texts. It not only has a great impact on the development of pharmacology in China, but also spread abroad soon; it has made progress in the development of world medicine. Important contribution.

The above is a summary of the ancient Chinese drug knowledge. At regular intervals, due to the continuous enrichment of drug knowledge, new summaries emerge. For example, in the Song Dynasty, "Kai Bao Materia Medica" and "Jiayou Budou Materia Medica" are summative. In the late Northern Song Dynasty, Tang Shenwei, a doctor of the Tang Dynasty, compiled a book called “The History of the Warrior”. He merged "Jiayou Budou Materia Medica" with "Tudou Materia Medica" and added more than 500 kinds of medicines. It collected many unilateral prescriptions from doctors and folks, and supplemented a large amount of drug data obtained from the historical literature, making this book The content is more substantial and the system is more complete. It was revised three times by the government, and the year numbers of "Grand View", "Government" and "Shaoxing" were added as official books. The great medical scientist of the Ming Dynasty, Li Shizhen (AD 1518 ~ 1593), carried out a thorough revision on the basis of the "Certificate of Materia Medica", "Thirty years old, more than 800 books, and the draft of Sanyi", The Materia Medica, which is in line with the development needs of the times, was compiled. The "Compendium of Materia Medica" was first published in Jinling (now Nanjing) three years after Li Shizhen's death (1596). This book contains 1,892 kinds of medicines, with more than 11,000 prescriptions.

 

Second, Shennong Materia Medica contributed

In this book, Li Shizhen comprehensively compiled and summarized the drug knowledge of the Chinese people before the 16th century and made great progress. He changed the picture of the drug, corrected the error, and according to the natural attributes of the drug, it was divided into sixteen classes and sixty classes. Under each drug, the name, the solution, the treatment, the indication, the invention, the prescription and related drugs, etc. The item, the system is detailed, and the words are rigorous. It is the greatest work in the history of Chinese herbal medicine, and it is also an extremely brilliant achievement in the history of science in China. Li Shizhen personally went to the mountains to collect medicines, and went far and wide, asked the local customs, and traveled all over the country. He conducted on-the-spot investigations and research on drugs, and used the scientific attitude of seeking truth from facts to open up the gnome's paradox, denying the evil spirits of the alchemists and correcting the ancient times. Many mistakes in the drug variety and efficacy of the herb have made the book "Compendium of Materia Medica" reach the level that most of the previous generations have not reached. This book was circulated at home and abroad in the early 16th century. Translated into a variety of words, not only has made great contributions to world medicine, but also an important classic for studying minerals. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, Zhao Xuemin compiled a book entitled "The Compendium of Materia Medica", and made some mistakes and supplements to the "Compendium of Materia Medica", adding 716 kinds of medicines. From Han to Qing, there are no more than one hundred kinds of herbal works, each with its own strengths, but it can be called summative, only the above books. The rest, such as the local "Southern Materia Medica" (Ming Lanmao), "Hai Yao Materia Medica" (Tang Li Wei) specializing in foreign drugs.

Third, the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine

The efficacy of many Chinese herbal medicines has not only withstood the test of long-term medical practice, but has also been confirmed by modern scientific research. The active ingredients and molecular structure of some Chinese herbal medicines have also been studied in whole or in part. For example, ephedrine, the active ingredient of ephedra and asthma, the active ingredient of Changshan malaria, Changshan, the main component of the painkiller, tetrahydropalmitine (tetrahydropalmatine), berberine and Phellodendron, the main component of berberine (berberine) ), the main ingredient of Astragalus antibacterial, baicalein, the active ingredient of rhubarb, senna, etc. In order to ensure the efficacy of the drug, the working people of our country have accumulated a wealth of experience in the cultivation, harvesting, processing, processing, storage and storage of drugs in the long-term practice. A large number of facts prove that the medical heritage accumulated by the ancient working people of our country through long-term practice is extremely rich and extremely valuable. We should cherish the great treasure house of this country's medicine, and strive to find and improve it.

The development of foreign drug knowledge is the earliest in Egypt and India. Drugs have been recorded in the "papytus" (paper herb) of Egypt around 1500 BC and the "Ajur veda" (Life Vedic) of India. Greece, ancient Rome, and Arabia also have a long history in the development of medicine, such as the De Materia Medica of the Greek doctor Dioscorides (Pharmacy), the "Materia Medica" by the Galen (131-200 AD) of ancient Rome. The "Canon Mediclnae" (medicine code) written by Arab doctor Avicenna (AD 980) is a special pharmacological work, which has a great influence on the development of ancient medicine.